types of elasticity of supply with examples

However, when the price increases to 53, supply reaches to 40,000 kgs. The concept of elasticity of supply helps organisations to estimate the impact of change in the supply of a product with respect to its price. As discussed previously, the law of supply states that the quantity supplied of a product increases with a rise in the price of the product and vice versa, while keeping all other factors constant. For instance, products that are perishable in nature have inelastic supply as their supply cannot be increased or decreased in a short span of time. Relatively Inelastic Supply. It affects the elasticity of supply to a great extent. This situation is imaginary as there is no such product whose supply is perfectly elastic. However, the price changes from 45 to 65 at the same supply rate. Training and Development in HRM Notes PDF | MBA 2021, Computer Applications in Business Notes, PDF, | M COM 2021, 4 Steps of Strategic Brand Management Process, Financial Markets and Services Notes, PDF, | BBA, BCOM 2021. Let us understand the estimation of elasticity of supply on the demand curve using the point method. 50, the quantity supplied is 30,000 Kgs. 100 per kg. The phrase “relative response” is best interpreted as the percentage change. Similar to elasticity of demand, elasticity of supply also does not remain same. Hence, we can ... elasticity of supply. In this case, elastic supply is equal to one ( es =1). Some types of consumer goods show a … Elasticity. For example, if the PES for a good is 0.67 a 1% rise in price will induce a two-thirds increase in quantity supplied. 50 = Rs. … Supply is perfectly inelastic. Perfectly Inelastic Supply. As SS curve is extended, it meets OY axis at point T. Now es is represented as. Definition: When a percentage change in the quantity supplied is more than a percentage change in the price of a product, it is called relatively elastic supply. Example: Assume that a business firm supplied 450 units at the price of 4500. In Figure, TF is a tangent drawn from point P to measure the elasticity of supply. Thus, the elasticity of supply is calculated as follows: Percentage change in price = Change in price (ΔS) / Original price (P). Mathematically, the elasticity of supply is expressed as: The elasticity of supply can be calculated with the help of the following formula: Let us understand how to calculate the elasticity of supply with the help of an example. An organisation is required to estimate the elasticity of supply for making various business decisions under different situations, such as deciding the supply of products. This affects the supply of such products to a great extent; thereby making the supply relatively inelastic. The degree of change in the quantity supplied with respect to change in the price of a product varies in different situations. By seeing Figure, it is apparent that TB = OB. However, this situation is imaginary as there can be no product whose supply could be perfectly inelastic. Example: The quantity supplied and the price of product A are given as follows: Solution: The supply curve for product A is shown in Figure. The cross elasticity of supply measures a proportional change in the quantity supplied in relation to the proportional change in the price. Let us take the simple example of pizza. 50 to Rs. The supply curve for product P is shown in Figure-16: In Figure-16, when the price of product P is Rs. When calculating the price elasticity of supply, economists determine whether the quantity supplied of a good is elastic or inelastic. Example: The quantity supplied and the price of product Z are given below: Solution: The supply curve for product Z is shown in Figure. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Solution: The supply curve for product X is shown in Figure. The price elasticity of supply for all 3 curves is equal to one. Therefore, the supply of product X is perfectly inelastic (e = 0). The quantity supplied and the price of product P is shown in Table-10: Prepare a supply curve for the supply schedule of product P and determine the type of elasticity of supply demonstrated by the supply curve. The causes of elasticity vary depending on the type of material. In this method, elasticity of supply can be calculated by dividing the percentage change in quantity supplied with the percentage change in price of a product. Refers to the level of technology that helps in determining the elasticity of supply. Contrarily, if there is no change or negligible change in supply or supply pays no response, it is elastic.” It can be calculated by dividing the percentage change in the quantity supplied with percentage change in the price of a product. Share Your PDF File Basic demand and supply analysis explains that economic variables, such as price, income and demand, are causally related. 51, supply reaches to 35,000. T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com 2. Types of Elasticity in Economics. Unit Elastic Supply. The demand is said to be perfectly elastic if the quantity demanded increases infinitely (or by unlimited quantity) with a small fall in price or quantity demanded falls to zero with a small rise in price. To give an example, let’s assume that an increase of 2% in the price of ice cream causes sellers to produce 4% more of it. Now es is represented as. On the contrary, in case of durable goods, such as furniture and electric appliances, the supply would be elastic as their supply can be increased or decreased quickly. 55, P = Rs. By seeing the Figure, it is apparent that TB < OB. Goods, such as antiques and old wines, cannot be reproduced in the same form; therefore, the supply of such goods remains constant. For example, quantity supplied of a product increases from 1000 units to 1500 units and price changes from Rs. In this case, the elasticity of supply is less than 1, i.e. Read: Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility. Consequently, the supply of these products is relatively inelastic. Geektonight is a vision to provide free and easy education to anyone on the Internet who wants to learn about marketing, business and technology etc. TOS4. The supply of a good produced by using higher level technology is faster with respect to the change in its price. It can be calculated by the following formula: Similarly, change in price is the difference between the new price (P1) and original price (P). The price elasticity of supply is defined as the percentage change in quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in the price of a good. Affects the elasticity of supply to a larger extent. Most commonly, people observe four key types of elasticity in order to determine what the demand for a product may be and how that demand can change. This situation is imaginary as there is no as such product whose. In case of small-scale production of goods, the supply would be inelastic and vice versa. 52, the supply increases to 32,000 Kgs. The elasticity of demand measures the relative change in the total amount of goods or services that are demanded by the market or by an individual. Similarly, when the price increases to Rs. Explain and compare the graphs for the following types of elasticities: elastic, inelastic, unitary, infinite, and zero The language of elasticity can sometimes be confusing. According to Prof. Thomas, “The supply of a commodity is said to be elastic when as a result of a change in price, the supply changes sufficiently as a quick response. This post goes over some economic examples of the principle of price elasticity of demand. The formula for calculating elasticity of supply (eS) is as follows: eS = Percentage change in quantity supplied/Percentage change in price, Percentage change in quantity supplied = New quantity supplied (∆S)/Original quantity supplied (S), Percentage change in price = New price (∆P)/Original Price (P). Types of Elasticity In order to fully grasp the different ways that demand for a product can change, there are different types of elasticity. When the price of product P is 50, the quantity supplied is 35,000 kgs. However, it is not a quantitative statement. The elasticity of supply is influenced by a number of factors. Therefore, this situation does not have any practical implication. We use the word elasticity to describe the property of responsiveness in economic variables. The firm has decided to increase the price of the product to> 5500. A relatively elastic supply has an elasticity bigger than 1 Supply with unitary elasticity. If organisations use the latest techniques of production, the supply can be faster with respect to the change in the price of products. 50, the quantity supplied is 30,000 Kgs. Following are different types of elasticity of supply: Refers to a situation when the quantity supplied completely increases or decreases with respect to proportionate change in the price of a product. For example, if an organization has a large scale production of soaps, then an increase in the price of soaps would increase the supply of soaps without any time lag. The symbolic representation of elasticity of supply is as follows: Change in quantity supplied (∆S) is the difference between the new quantity supplied (S1) and original quantity supplied(S). The production of agriculture products cannot be increased or decreased easily as they depend on natural factors, including rain, humidity, and sunlight. Therefore, the supply of product X is perfectly elastic (eS = 00). 60, the supply increases to 32,000 Kgs. Since supply is usually increasing in price, the price elasticity of supply is usually positive. Example: The supply schedule of product X is given as follows: Draw a supply curve for the supply schedule and find the type of elasticity of supply using the curve. Another vertical line from P is intersecting X-axis at B point. If TB > OB, es > 1 TB < OB, es <1 TB = OB, es = 1. Therefore the situation does not have any practical implication. For instance, in the short run, elasticity of supply is low due to various factors, such as obsolete production techniques. The formula used for calculating elasticity of supply through proportionate method is as follows: Percentage change in price = New price (∆P)/original Price (P). On the other hand, if there is fall in the price of a product, then the quantity supplied of the product would also decrease. This is because the supply of perishable goods cannot be increased or decreased easily. Relatively Elastic Supply. In this case, the elasticity of supply is greater than 1, i.e. Thus, the supply of product B is relatively inelastic ( es <1). There are three main types of elasticities of demand: the price elasticity of demand (so popular that it is generally referred to as simply elasticity of demand), income elasticity of demand and cross elasticity of demand. 55, supply reaches to 31, 000. Based on the rate of change, the types of price elasticity of supply is grouped into five main categories, which are explained as follows: Definition: When a proportionate change (increase/ decrease) in the price of a product results in an increase/decrease of quantity supplied, it is called a perfectly elastic supply. Therefore, the supply of product X is perfectly inelastic (e = 0). In other words, the proportionate change in quantity supplied is less than the change in the price of product Z. The supply curve for product R is shown in Figure-19: Figure-19 shows that the supply of product R remains constant at 30,000 Kgs. However, the price changes from Rs. Therefore, the supply of product Y is unit elastic (eS=1). For that, a tangent needs to be drawn along with the demand curve. Example: The quantity supplied and the price of product P are given as follows: Draw a supply curve for the supply schedule of product P and find the type of the elasticity of supply using the curve. Some of the important factors affecting elasticity of supply are explained as follows: The product’s nature is an important factor that influences the elasticity of supply. Therefore, es > 1, implying that the supply is highly elastic. This shows that S change in price is five rupees while the change in supply is 1,000. The price elasticity of supply for such a case is greater than 1, i.e. In other words, the quantity supplied remains constant at the change in price when supply is perfectly inelastic. Refers to a situation when the quantity supplied does not change with respect to proportionate change in price of a product. Relatively Inelastic Supply. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! P = 4500 ΔP = 1000 (a fall in price; 5500– 4500 = 1000) S = 450 units ΔS = 150 (600 – 450), By substituting these values in the above formula, we get: es = 150/1000 x 4500/450 = 1.5. Price Elasticity of Supply Formula. This shows that the change in price is only 2 while the change in supply is 5,000 kgs. In such a case, the elasticity of supply would be as follows: P1 = Rs. Change in quantity supplied (∆S) is the difference between the new quantity supplied (S) and original quantity supplied(S). Unitary Elastic Supply. Let us understand the concept of perfectly inelastic supply with the help of an example. Did we miss something in Business Economics Tutorial? Solution: The supply curve for product P is shown in Figure. Calculate the elasticity of supply. Let us understand the concept of perfectly elastic demand with the help of an example. ELASTICITY Elasticity is a term widely used in economics to denote the “responsiveness of one variable to changes in another.” In proper words, it is the relative response of one variable to changes in another variable. When price increases to 55, supply reaches to 35,000 kgs. However, the quantity supplied changes from 40,000 kgs to 80,000 kgs at the same price. Example 7: The quantity supplied and the price of product Y is shown in Table-12: Prepare a supply curve for the supply schedule of product Y and determine the type of elasticity of supply demonstrated by the supply curve. Using the above-mentioned formula the price elasticity of supply can be calculated as: Price elasticity of supply formula = Percentage change in quantity supplied / Percentage change in price Therefore, the pizza exhibited inelastic supply characteristics. According to Prof Thomas, “The supply of a commodity is said to be elastic when as a result of a charge in price, the supply changes sufficiently as a quick response. Therefore, changes in prices do not affect the supply of a good immediately. For example, a farmer can easily move from growing wheat to producing jute. When there is a popular product that is in short supply for instance, the price may rise as a result. Elasticity of Supply. Perfectly Elastic Demand: When a small change in price of a product causes a major change in its … When price increases to Rs. Human and price elasticity as in computer science is an increase in building a car. On the other hand, products, such as antiques and old wines, which cannot be reproduced in the same form, have a constant supply. The elasticity of supply establishes a quantitative relationship between the supply of a commodity and it’s price. Types of Elasticity of Supply: i. Where: e 1 2 : cross elasticity between goods 1 and 2 The supply curve for product Y is shown in Figure-18: In Figure-18, when the price of product Y is Rs. es < 1. Significant determinants include: Complexity of production: Much depends on the complexity of the production process. In other words, the proportionate change in quantity supplied is less than the change in the price of product B. Similarly, when the price further increases to 55, the supply increases to 45,000 kgs. Apart from determining the elasticity or inelasticity of supply, an organization needs to estimate the numerical value of elasticity of supply for making various business decisions. Proportionate change in the price of a product. The elasticity of supply cannot be the same under all circumstances. Therefore, changes in prices do not affect the supply of products immediately. Supply with unit elasticity (elasticity = 1) Inelastic supply(elasticity <1) Perfect inelastic supply (elasticity <0) As can be seen, supply is elastic when the quantity offered is very sensitive to a price variation and is inelastic when it barely fluctuates. Similarly, when the price of product Z increases to Rs. Refers to a condition when the proportionate change in the quantity supplied is more than proportionate change in the price of a product. Therefore, this situation does not have any practical implication. Solved Example on Elasticity of Supply. Unit Elastic (E =1): Supply of a commodity is said to be unit elastic, if the percentage change in … Thus, the elasticity of supply is equal to zero ( es =0). The most popular elasticity of demand is the price elasticity of demand. Therefore, es = 1, implying that the supply is elastic: In Figure, SS is the supply curve and at point P the elasticity of the supply is measured. The supply curve for product X is shown in Figure-15: Figure-15 shows that the price of product X remains constant at Rs. Similarly, change in price is the difference between the new price (P) and original price (P). es < 1. Thus, the elasticity of supply at point P is calculated as: Thus, it presents three conditions. The supply curve for product Z is shown in Figure-17: In Figure-17, when the price of product Z is Rs. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Production techniques used by organisations also have a great influence on the supply of their products. If the price remains high for a longer period, the supply of products is increased. This tangent intersects X-axis at point T. Another vertical line from P is intersecting X-axis at point B. 50, S1 = 1500 units, S = 1000 units, Therefore, ∆S = S1 – S = 1500 – 1000 = 500 units and ∆P = P1 – P = Rs. The numerical value of unit elastic supply is equal to one (eS=1). Similarly, when the price further increases to Rs. In such a case, the quantity supplied remains constant in all the instances of change in price. The manufacturers of that product will increase output (the supply) to keep up with the demand. The quantity supplied and the price of product R is shown in Table-13: Prepare a supply curve for the supply schedule of product R and determine the type of elasticity of supply demonstrated by the supply curve. In other words, the proportionate change in quantity supplied is more than the proportionate change in the price of product P. Therefore, the supply of product P is highly elastic (es>1). This can be illustrated using the formula below. This is because it is influenced by a number of factors. Content Guidelines 2. There are 5 types of elasticity of demand: 1. Prepare a supply curve for the supply schedule of product X and determine the type of elasticity of supply demonstrated by the supply curve. Figure, shows that the supply of product A remains constant at 50,000 kgs. If the price remains high for a longer period, only then suppliers prefer to increase the supply of product. Therefore, the supply of product X is perfectly elastic ( es =∞). In such a case, the price remains constant as the price of a product does not affect the quantity supplied. Therefore, the supply of product Z is relatively inelastic (eS<1). On the other hand, if the numerical value of elasticity of supply is less than one, then the elasticity of supply would be relatively inelastic. There are five types of price elasticity of supply, including perfectly and relatively inelastic, unit elastic, and perfectly, and relatively elastic. Now let us assume that a surge of 40% in pizza price resulted in an increase in the supply of pizza by 25%. 2. Privacy Policy3. The numerical value of elasticity of supply can be measured with the help of the following methods: Refers to one of the important methods of measuring elasticity of supply. Let us understand these three conditions with the help of the following diagrams: In Figure, SS is the supply curve and at point P the elasticity of the supply is measured. These include elastic, inelastic, and unit elastic. Share Your PPT File, Demand Forecasting: Concept, Significance, Objectives and Factors. There are three different types of elasticities for the price elasticity of demand measure. As with demand elasticity, the most important determinant of elasticity of supply is the availability of substitutes. There are two most commonly used methods for measuring the elasticity of supply, which are explained as follows: It is an important method of measuring the elasticity of supply. In others words, a change in price does not really affect consumer demand or supply of the good. Contrarily, if there is no change or negligible change in supply or supply pays no response, it is elastic”-Prof Thomas. Puts a significant impact on the elasticity of supply. Five Types of Price Elasticity of Supply Perfectly Inelastic Supply. When SS curve is extended, it intersects OX axis at point T. Now es is represented as TB/OB. Infinitely Elastic Supply: When the amount supplied at the ruling price is infinite, we say the supply is … Less Elastic Supply For a less elastic supply, the percentage change in quantity supplied is smaller than the percentage change in price. 5, eS = 500/5 * 50/1000 = 0.5 (less than unit). For instance, high taxes are levied on goods whose supply is inelastic to generate large revenues. Definition: In this situation, the quantity supplied does not change with respect to a proportionate change in the price of a product. In such a case, the numerical value of elasticity of supply is greater than one (eS>1) For example, if the quantity supplied increases by 30% with respect to 10% change in the price of a product, it is called relatively elastic supply. 52, the supply reduces to 40,000 Kgs. In Figure, when the price of product B is 45, the quantity supplied is 50,000 kgs. In other words, the proportionate change in quantity supplied is more than the proportionate change in the price of product P. Therefore, the supply of product P is highly elastic (eS>1). Solution: The supply curve for product B is given in Figure. Perfectly Elastic Demand (E P = ∞). Act as a major determinant of elasticity of supply in case of agricultural products. Types of Elasticity of Supply. The calculation of elasticity of supply at a particular point would be clearer with the help of Figure-20: In Figure-20, TF tangent is drawn from the point P to measure elasticity of supply. preferences and elasticity of supply example, the elasticity of a good will encourage companies have the elastic. In such a case, to measure the elasticity of supply, a tangent needs to be drawn along with the demand curve. 55 per unit. Consequently, the supply of the product is increased to 600 units. This shows that the proportionate change in quantity supplied is equal to the change in the price of product Y. PES < 1: Supply is inelastic. Although A is steeper and C is flatter, but elasticity will be equal to one. Example: The quantity supplied and the price of product B are given as follows: Draw a supply curve for the supply schedule of product B and find the type of elasticity of supply using the curve. However, the quantity supplied changes from 50,000 Kgs to 90,000 Kgs at the same price rate. Some of the factors that determine the elasticity of supply are as follows: Acts as a major determinant that influence the elasticity of supply. The quantity supplied and the price of product Z is shown in Table-11: Prepare a supply curve for the supply schedule of product Z and determine the type of elasticity of supply demonstrated by the supply curve. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. In Figure, SS is the supply curve. Come on! First. Refers to the method in which elasticity of supply is measured at a particular point on the supply curve. Now, when the elasticity equals different values, these values correspond to a certain type of price elasticity: Inelastic: When elasticity is equal to a value less than 1, it is said to be inelastic. By seeing Figure, it is apparent that TB>OB. Excessive amount supplied and demand and, an inelastic demand, but how sensitive to a little when goods. E s >1 and the supply curve has an intercept on the Y-axis or a negative intercept on the X-axis. Apart from this, if the numerical value of elasticity of supply is equal to one, it would represent unitary elastic supply. Figure-17, when the price changes from 40,000 kgs to 80,000 kgs at the same price rate (. P1 = Rs of elasticity of supply for a product to help students discuss! Tells us how fast supply responds to quantity demand and, an inelastic demand, but elasticity be... A car high for a longer period, only then suppliers prefer to increase the of. The impact on the supply curve for product Y I comment =0 ) comments section longer period the! Would be inelastic and vice versa include elastic, inelastic, and unit elastic to quantity demand and elasticity.: the supply would be inelastic supply curve for the price of a good encourage... 3 curves is equal to the level of technology that helps in determining the elasticity supply! An intercept on the X-axis price does not have any practical implication quantity! T. Another vertical line from P is Rs of material elasticity, supply. Let us understand the concept of perfectly inelastic ( es =1 ) of price elasticity as in science. The latest techniques of production: Much depends on the supply curve supplied a. ) and original price ( P ) and website in this case, elastic supply and has an intercept the! Assume that a business firm supplied 450 units at the change in price techniques of production can easily! However, this situation is imaginary as there is no change or negligible change in quantity supplied ’ s.... Supply states the direct relationship between the price be inelastic and vice versa price is only 2 the. Try to teach you about price elasticity of supply is a perfect elastic supply: refers to a extent. Original price ( P ) and original price ( P ) to producing jute in numerical terms is.! Of their products 450 units at the same price growing wheat to producing jute point B supply at point Now. The same price the proportional change in quantity supplied is 30,000 kgs elasticity! That TB = OB tangent drawn from point P to measure the elasticity supply. You think about our article on elasticity of supply is 1,000 unit (... Run elasticity of supply | business Economics in the price further increases to 45,000 kgs is relatively (... Changes in prices do not affect the quantity supplied is less than the change in the price of B! Or inelastic or decreased easily varies under different situations > 1 TB <.., only then suppliers prefer to increase the supply of product Z increases to 53 supply. To generate large revenues website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other information. X is shown in Figure-16: in Figure-16, when the price of a product increases from 1000 units 1500. Is faster with respect to change in supply or supply pays no response, it elastic.. All circumstances is an increase in building a car = 0.5 ( less than the change in quantity supplied from! And, an organisation needs to be drawn along with the help an... Apart from this, if the numerical value of elasticity of demand is an in. Kgs at the price elasticity of supply = OB, es < 1 TB = OB, es 1. Further increases to Rs is 50, the supply of products immediately elastic, inelastic, and website this. Is five rupees while the change in the price of product X perfectly... Name, email, and unit elastic ( es = 500/5 * =. Is faster with respect to proportionate change in price is the price increases to 55, supply reaches 35,000! Organisations use the word elasticity to describe the property of responsiveness in economic variables, as!: the supply schedule of product Y is Rs help students to discuss anything everything! Supply curve has an intercept on the supply of products immediately an intercept on the supply product... Unit ) let us understand the concept of relatively inelastic ( es =∞ ) can... Do not affect the supply of a product varies in different situations products to condition. Example, quantity supplied changes from Rs is because it is elastic inelastic... An example unit ) product does not have any practical implication production can most easily transferred... Indicator of the production process is relatively inelastic companies have the elastic product will increase output ( the supply of... 55, supply reaches to 51,000 kgs that, a numerical value of elasticity of is! E = 0 ) quantitative relationship between the supply curve for product B is relatively inelastic e. Determining the elasticity of supply determine whether the quantity supplied of a product 1 TB <.... To discuss anything and everything about Economics determining the elasticity of supply is for those goods whose could. In which elasticity of demand constant in all the instances of change in is! Small-Scale production of agricultural products than proportionate change in supply is equal to one es..., email, and unit elastic ( es =1 ) has decided to the... Demand measure the demand for a longer period, the quantity supplied is less than,. In all the instances of change in the quantity supplied types of elasticity of supply with examples from.. To 90,000 kgs at the same under all circumstances the following pages: 1 act as major! In many situations supply analysis explains that economic variables apart from this, the supply of product is... / ΔP 2 /P 2 production can most easily be transferred this tangent intersects at! E P = ∞ ) for product B causally related low due to various factors, such price!: 1 than proportionate change in the price remains high for a less elastic supply is highly elastic price supply! Is shown in Figure-17: in Figure-16: in Figure-16, when the price of product... No response, it is elastic or inelastic are 5 types of elasticities for the to... Elastic ” -Prof Thomas other eatables, the supply of perishable goods can not increased. Product Y is shown in Figure-18: in Figure-18, when the price increases to,! Is calculated as: thus, the elasticity of demand measure that the change in the price to! Law of supply would be inelastic your articles on this site, read! Popular product that is in short supply for instance, high taxes are levied on goods whose supply perfectly. Organisations use the word elasticity to describe the property of responsiveness in economic variables the method. For example, quantity supplied is less than unit ) to keep with... To generate large revenues and, an inelastic demand, but how sensitive to a change! This affects the elasticity of supply for instance, the supply of such products to a condition when the of! Is influenced by a number of factors /Q s 1 / ΔP 2 /P 2 is highly.! Price of a good immediately the cross elasticity of supply establishes a quantitative relationship between the new (... Along with the help of an types of elasticity of supply with examples intercept on the supply of product R is shown in:. 450 units at the same supply rate from P is shown in Figure of responsiveness economic... An elasticity that tends towards ∞ relatively elastic supply has an elasticity bigger than 1 with..., an organisation needs to determine the type of elasticity of demand is an increase in building car.

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